Fundamentals of understanding nature

Ocean of Solutions: Protecting biodiversity in the blue economy

Eco-Business & Regional Project Energy Security and Climate Change Asia-Pacific of the KAS (February 2022)

Marine biodiversity is in a monumental crisis. Despite more attention to understand the impacts of anthropogenic-driven climate change on land and marine biodiversity in recent years, the effects of climate change and economic activity such as fishing are still poorly understood. Consequently, the steps needed to restore ocean health have not materialised.

This high-level report summarises the leading causes of declines in marine biodiversity in Asia-Pacific and offers six recommendations that could strengthen the protection of marine-life based on interviews conducted with stakeholders in marine conservation.

What boards and executives should know about biodiversity

EY Oceania (February 2022)

In brief:

  • Capital could be diverted away from businesses that deplete natural inputs or cause adverse biodiversity impacts.
  • Managing biodiversity risk can improve productivity and resilience, and underpin a social license to operate.
  • Businesses should act now to understand their biodiversity risks and opportunities, build internal accountability and disclose their actions.

Nature-based solutions for climate change mitigation

UNEP and IUCN (November 2021)

Analysing scientific literature, the report by UNEP and IUCN finds that nature-based solutions (NbS) can deliver emission reductions and removals of at least 5 gigatons of CO2 per year by 2030, and at least 10 gigatons by 2050 on a conservative basis. The report highlights that this contribution from nature, in addition to the rapid decarbonisation of the global economy, can play a significant role in reaching the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to below 1.5°C. To fulfil this potential, NbS require additional funding and must be implemented according to strict standards.

What does nature-positive mean for business?

WBCSD (November 2021)

TNFD Forum member WBCSD provide “building blocks” that break down key concepts of nature-positive action and translate them into clear steps for business.

Nature-Positive Hub

Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership (November 2021)

A go-to resource page for information and materials on the nature-positive transformation.

Achieving the SDGs with Biodiversity

Swiss Academy of Sciences (2021)

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) charts a new path of balance for humanity and the planet. The highly interconnected SDGs will only be achieved in their entirety through transformative changes in our societies. Recent studies on the interactions between the SDGs identify the conservation of biodiversity as one of the most potent levers to achieve sustainability. The biodiversity-focused SDGs 14 (life below water) and 15 (life on land) emerge as multipliers of co-benefits across the goals. This factsheet aims to explain the importance of biodiversity for implementing all SDGs and to provide decision makers with options and entry points for transformative change.

Q&A: What is “natural capital” and why should investors care?

Schroders (July 2021)

A Q&A style explainer on natural capital, how it differs from other forms of capital, how natural capital is categorised, how it differs from other terms such as biodiversity, how it is valued, and why it is the concern of investors.

Unlocking Nature-Smart Development : An Approach Paper on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

World Bank Group (August 2021)

Unlocking Nature-Smart Development: An Approach Paper on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services is part of a series of papers by the World Bank Group that outlines the development challenges and opportunities associated with blue and green biodiversity and ecosystem services. The paper makes the case that the rapid global decline in nature is a development issue and proposes six global response areas intended to guide governments and inform broader discussions on how to integrate nature into development agendas. As countries formulate a set of new global biodiversity targets, this paper also offers insights that could inform the design and implementation of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework, as well as the World Bank Group’s ongoing support to this agenda.

The insurance rationale for carbon removal solutions

Swiss Re (July 2021)

To limit global warming to 2015 Paris Accord levels, the world’s net emissions of greenhouse gases need to drop to zero by 2050.

Protected Planet Report 2020

UNEP-WCMC and IUCN (2021)

Tracking progress towards global targets for protected and conserved areas.

Protected Planet Reports are biennial landmark publications that assess the state of protected and conserved areas around the world. The 2020 edition provides the final report on the status of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11, and looks to the future as the world prepares to adopt a new post-2020 global biodiversity framework.

Nature and Net Zero

World Economic Forum, in collaboration with McKinsey & Company (May 2021)

Natural climate solutions (NCS) play a critical role in supporting the future of both climate and nature. Research conducted for this report confirms estimates that NCS can provide one-third (close to 7 Gt CO2) of the climate mitigation to reach a 1.5- or 2-degree pathway by 2030—and at a lower cost than other forms of carbon dioxide removal. Deployed in the right way, NCS can also produce high co-benefits that accrue to nature and to communities. Building off the recommendations from the Taskforce for Scaling Voluntary Carbon Markets, this report sets out five actions to accelerate the scale-up of high-quality NCS implementation and unlock markets through the combined efforts of business leaders, policymakers and civil society.

State of Finance for Nature

UNEP, WEF, ELD, Vivid Economics (May 2021)

The State of Finance of Nature tracks global trends in public and private investment in nature-based solutions, aiming to improve data quality and identify opportunities for governments, businesses and financiers. This year’s report calls for investments in nature-based solutions to triple by 2030 and to increase four-fold by 2050 from the current level. While an increase in public funding would help plug some of the gap, there needs to be a significant increase in private sector investment in Nature-based solutions.

Financing a Nature Positive Economy

Green Renaissance podcast – Platform for Action on the Green Economy (March 2021)

A podcast episode on financing a nature positive economy.

Financing a nature positive economy

WWF (February 2021)

A briefing outlining why the nature crisis is so important and what can be done by financial institutions to address it.

The Economics of Biodiversity: The Dasgupta Review

UK Government HM Treasury (February 2021)

Final Report of the Independent Review on the Economics of Biodiversity led by Professor Sir Partha Dasgupta.

Living Planet report 2020

WWF (September 2020)

The WWF’s flagship report assessing the trends in global biodiversity and the health of the planet, released every two years.

Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) (May 2019) 

The periodic report assessing the status of and trends affecting biodiversity and ecosystem services, and the impact of biodiversity and ecosystem services on human wellbeing.